Bird Families

Description of the Bat Giant Evening Party from the Red Book


  • Tags
  • Birds starting with the letter C
Latin name:Sylvia
English name:Garden warbler
A type:Chordates
Body length:15 cm
Wing length:8 cm
Wingspan:17 cm
Weight:20 g
  • 1 Description of the bird
  • 2 Features of bird nutrition
  • 3 Distribution of warbler in nature
  • 4 Is the warbler a migratory bird?
  • 5 Bird species
    • 5.1 Atlas Warbler
    • 5.2 African Desert Warbler
    • 5.3 Whitethroat
    • 5.4 Whitethroat
    • 5.5 Yemen Tit Warbler
    • 5.6 Spectacled warbler
    • 5.7 Warbler
    • 5.8 Pinto warbler
    • 5.9 Provencal Warbler
    • 5.10 Desert Warbler
    • 5.11 Garden Warbler
    • 5.12 Sardinian Warbler
    • 5.13 gray warbler
    • 5.14 Rüppel's Slavka
    • 5.15 Lesser Whitethroat or Miller Warbler
    • 5.16 Mediterranean or olive warbler
    • 5.17 Subalpine or red-breasted warbler
    • 5.18 Black-headed Warbler
    • 5.19 Hawk Warbler
  • 6 Male and female: the main differences
  • 7 Slips at home
    • 7.1 Cage requirement
  • 8 Breeding Warblers
    • 8.1 Feeding for Warblers
  • 9 Interesting Facts About the Bird
  • 10 Singing

Description of the bird

The genus of songbirds, the Warbler of the Warbler family, is the largest of the passerine species and has more than 20 species. All these small nimble and nimble birds are very similar to each other. Their plumage is dominated by gray and brown shades, with the addition of black and white. Only a few species are marked with red or pinkish plumage. On average, the size of the warbler does not exceed the size of the common sparrow. Their body length is up to 15 cm, their wingspan is about 17 cm, and their weight is up to 20 g.

Features of bird nutrition

Slavki are omnivorous birds. In summer, they willingly eat insects, for example, mosquitoes, caterpillars, dragonflies, flies. In autumn and winter, warblers turn their attention to plant food - plant seeds and berries.

The short and grasping beak of the warbler allows them to easily and conveniently get both animal and plant food.

Distribution of warbler in nature

Slips are very widespread. Their habitat covers the entire territory of Europe and Asia, including the distant regions of Siberia. These small songbirds are also found in Africa, in the north of the continent.

Is the warbler a migratory bird?

Most warbler species are migratory birds. They migrate mainly at night. In their usual habitats, warblers like to settle on the edges of forests and in dense thickets. Sometimes they fly to gardens and parks.

Atlas Warbler

It lives in northwestern Africa and southern Europe in subtropical and tropical forests. Prefers to nest at an altitude of 1000 to 2500 meters above sea level. Flies to Morocco for the winter. The body length of birds is 12-14 cm, the wingspan is up to 17 cm.

African Desert Warbler

Body length up to 12 cm, weight about 10 g. Females and males do not differ from each other, they have a brown back and a white tummy. Beak and legs are yellow. The species is common in Africa, does not fly over.

Whitethroat warbler

The males have a dark gray back, the tummy is pink, the tail is decorated with white stripes, and white stripes go down from the corners of the beak, due to which the species got its name. Females and juveniles are grayish-brown in color with a white belly. The bird lives in Turkey and the Caucasus. Winters off the coast of the Red Sea.

Mountain warbler

A small bird about 14 cm in length, weighing up to 17 g. It lives in tropical and subtropical forests of Asia at altitudes of 2000 - 3000 m above sea level (Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan). Winters in southern India and Sri Lanka.

Yemen tit warbler

Endangered. Lives in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, in tropical and subtropical forests. The body length of this species reaches 15 cm.

Spectacled warbler

An inhabitant of Europe, the spectacled warbler, in appearance resembles a gray warbler. Its size is from 12 to 14 cm, body weight is up to 10 g. The bird's head is gray, the throat is white, the back is brown, and the breast and tummy are pinkish-gray. The plumage on the wings is red-brown.


This species has a black cap on its head. The back is brown, the tummy is white. The species is found in Asia and southern Europe.

Piebald warbler

Lives in the arid savannas of Asia at altitudes from 250 to 2000 meters above sea level. The average body length is about 16 cm. In the song you can hear the characteristic cry of "chak".

Provencal Warbler

The length of the body is from 10 to 15 cm. The upper part of the body is colored gray, the bottom is red. The female is slightly lighter. The species is found in the south of Europe.

Desert warbler

The habitat of the species is Asia and North Africa. The length of the body is about 12 cm. The plumage is yellowish-gray above, the abdomen is white with reddish, the tail is with white stripes. The beak is thin, yellow. Sexual dimorphism is not pronounced.

Garden warbler

An inhabitant of Europe and Western Siberia with a body length of 13-15 cm, weighing up to 22 g. The plumage of the garden warbler is gray-brown, monotonous, with a greenish tint. The chest, tummy and undertail are white. Males and females do not differ in color, young animals are slightly lighter.

Sardinian Warbler

The species is common in southern Europe. It is a small bird with a large beak, reminiscent of the Provencal warbler. The back is gray, the abdomen is brick-red. Adult males have dark spots on the forehead. The legs are colored red.

Gray warbler

A small nimble bird the size of a sparrow. Her back is gray-brown with reddish color, her head and sides are ashy, her throat is white, her tummy is painted in a delicate pink color. The species is common in Europe, Asia, Western Siberia, northern Africa, as well as Israel.

Slavka Rüppel

Lives in Greece and Turkey. It is a small gray bird with black wings and a black tail adorned with white feathers.

Lesser Whitethroat or Miller Warbler

Distributed in Central Europe. Body length - up to 14 cm, wings - about 7 cm, body weight 12 - 15 g. Painted brown. This species is very similar to the gray warbler, but slightly smaller in size, and has a dark stripe on its head.

Mediterranean or olive warbler

The species is common in Spain and Italy. Body length - up to 14 cm. Sexual dimorphism is expressed in birds. Males are dark gray above with a black head and gray belly, the periocular ring is red. The females have gray plumage of the head, the back is brown, the sides are gray-brown.

Subalpine or red-breasted warbler

The species is found in the Mediterranean. Body length - 12-13 cm. The back is intensely gray, the tummy is slightly lighter. Birds have a characteristic white stripe on the chest.

Black-headed warbler

The species lives throughout Europe and in northern Africa. Body length - up to 15 cm, wingspan about 16 cm, weight - up to 22 g. The color of the plumage is brown-gray with a light belly. Males wear a black “cap” made of feathers on their heads, while females wear a red one.

Hawk warbler

Lives in Europe. It is the largest species with a body length of up to 18 cm, weighing about 30 g. The back is grayish-green in color, the head is dark. The upper tail is colored black and white. The belly is white with a brownish pattern, which is similar to the coloration of the chest of a hawk.

Male and female: the main differences

Sexual dimorphism in all species of Whitethroats is insignificant. The color of birds is mainly grayish-brown with slight differences, which allows them to deftly hide and hide in bush thickets.

Slips at home

Little nimble warblers do well in captivity. If the bird was recently caught, it may behave restlessly at first, banging against the cage. In such cases, cover the cage with tissue and try not to disturb the bird. In a few days, warblers usually get used to people, and even begin to recognize the owner and meet his appearance with sonorous singing.

The character of the Whitethroats is calm and very peaceful. Birds of other species can show aggression towards them and offend Warblers, so it is better to settle them separately.

Cage requirement

A spacious aviary or a rectangular cage located away from drafts is suitable for keeping Warblers. The room temperature should not drop below 18-20 ° C, as these birds love warmth. It is necessary to place perches, a feeder, a drinker and a bathing container in the cage. The cage is disinfected once a month.

Breeding Warblers

In captivity, warblers also mate and start nesting. To do this, it is necessary to plant plants in a cage or aviary so that the birds can build a nest for themselves.

At a time, the female lays from 4 to 8 eggs, which are incubated by both parents in turn. After two weeks, chicks are born.

Warbler food

The main food for warblers is various grain mixtures, pieces of fruits and vegetables, berries (blueberries, raspberries, elderberries, currants). During nesting, their diet is enriched with animal food - insects, mealworms, ant eggs.

Interesting facts about the bird

  • Slavki are very secretive birds and deftly hide from people. Therefore, they are difficult to see, although their sonorous singing is often heard in gardens and parks.
  • Warbler's flight for wintering, unlike other migratory birds, is made mainly at night, guided by the polar star.
  • In the wild, warblers live for 7-10 years, and at home they can even live up to 12 years.


Both males and females sing, very loud and sonorous. Moreover, the voices differ in different species of birds. Some of them sing rhythmically, abruptly, others - more tenderly and melodiously, reminiscent of the sound of a flute. Slavki well imitate the voices of other birds, and at home they can even copy human speech.

Description of the animal

Brief description of the giant nocturnal:

Scientific classificationValue
A typeChordates
FamilySmooth-nosed bats
ViewGiant nocturnal
Latin nameNyctalus lasiopterus
OpenIn 1780
Conservation statusVulnerable species
HabitatDeciduous forests from France to the Volga region with the Caucasus and the Middle East

What does it look like

The body length of mammals is 85-105 mm, weight - 40-75 g, wingspan - 40-45 cm. Coloring: fawn-chestnut-red. The muzzle of this bat looks somewhat frightening: wide, with protruding sharp teeth, large eyes. The coat on the abdomen is lighter than on the back.

The wings are pointed, long - it is this feature of the structure of the wings that contributes to the development of high speed. The thinner wings of bats, in contrast to birds, maneuver more accurately and faster.

The structure of the ears of large bats is interesting - they are increased in width, rounded, large. The tragus has the shape of a mushroom, the auricle "looks" forward. Sensitive ears pick up an ultrasonic signal at 17-19 kHz.

Character and lifestyle

Like other species of bats, giant bats sleep in caves or tree hollows during the day. They go hunting at night. If there are no dense forests nearby, they settle in parks and gardens. They live in small groups of 8-10 individuals.

They prefer to hunt over water bodies. Circling above the water at a high altitude, mammals gradually descend, where they attack insects. The victims are detected using ultrasound. For this, the evening party will need no more than 10 seconds.

These large mammals lead a secretive way of life; they are practically invisible in flight, merging with the twilight sky. Unlike other species, they fly very quietly. That is why it is convenient to observe them only in the moonlight. Life expectancy is 8-9 years, in captivity they live up to 20 years.

What do they eat

These large creatures are not picky about food - they eat what they manage to catch. In summer, insects make up their diet: beetles, butterflies, mosquitoes. In search of food, they often fly long distances.

During the period of seasonal migration of birds, the menu of bats becomes more diverse. Winged predators often manage to eat small birds: warbler, redstart, chiffchaff, robin.

Where dwells

This rare and very beautiful species of bats lives in deciduous and mixed forests. Lives in the hollows of old, withered trees.

In Europe, the giant nocturnal is common in the territory from the Orenburg expanses of the Russian Federation to the North of France. You can also find it in cold climatic zones: Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow regions. It is also found in warm zones: Iran, Transcaucasia, Morocco.

Since 2000, Ukrainian scientists have discovered 14,500 specimens of the giant nocturnal in their country. The animals were placed in a bats rehabilitation center. Here, the researchers suggested that the captured bats were not born on the territory of Ukraine, but migrated here from the Voronezh region of Russia.

Small populations can be found on the territory:

  1. eastern and southern Europe,
  2. southern Crimea,
  3. Central Asia and the Middle East,
  4. western Transcaucasia,
  5. North Africa.


Females reach sexual maturity after 4 months. The mating season starts in September. The male feels very at ease surrounded by a whole harem of females: from 3 to 10 individuals. To attract such a number of female fans, the male sings mating songs with a piercing rattling voice.

Pregnant bats gather in communities. Sometimes they are joined by relatives: small or red nochids. Expectant mothers gather in flocks of 20-30 individuals and prepare for wintering. Such groups are called brood colonies.

The most numerous brood colony of noctresses consisted of 66 individuals.

Cubs are born in late spring - early summer. Each female brings one, less often two cubs. The weight of newborns is 6-7 grams. The baby feeds on mother's milk and at first is inseparable from her, clinging to her body with small claws.

A month later, small mice are already able to remain alone in the shelter, waiting for the parent with food. After another 10 days, the young begin to fly and gradually become independent.

Natural enemies

There are quite a few ill-wishers in the giant nocturnal. And although its size is large enough in comparison with other bats, the nocturnal hunts at night. And at this time, larger predators come out on the hunting trail.

The following animals are dangerous for large bats:

  • weasel,
  • marten,
  • ermine,
  • raccoons,
  • ferrets,
  • rats,
  • snakes,
  • falcon, golden eagle and other birds of prey.

In addition to hungry predators, the giant mouse has other enemies, not so large. Mammals suffer from small parasites such as bedbugs, fleas and ticks. Often these blood-sucking creatures kill animals.

People are actively fighting parasites and rodents in their homes. For this purpose, they call in disinfectants. After spraying the premises, rodents and insects disappear.

Bats in the attic may also die with them. Industrial poisoning is one of the reasons for the change in the population of giant bats.


In summer, bats rest in the hollows of trees, and in winter they hibernate. For winter quarters, they choose deep mines and caves in the rocks, attics of private houses.

Giant noctuaries, which have settled in the northern regions, migrate south in winter.

Giant Evening Party in the Red Book

This species of bats has been granted a conservation status according to the annexes of the Bonn and Bern conventions. Giant bats are listed in the Red Book of Russia and Ukraine.

The main causes of extinction

The main threats to the existence of the giant bat population are:

  1. the use of pesticides by people,
  2. destruction of deciduous forests,
  3. reducing the number of insects that make up the food of nocturnal
A close up of the small bat. Isolated on black.

Current population situation

It is difficult to determine the number of individuals of the giant nocturnal, mainly due to the peculiarities of the way of life of these mammals.

Observing the bats in the Voronezh Reserve, experts noted that there was one giant nocturnal for every 500 captured red noctresses.

In the west of the Odessa region in Ukraine, during the migration, out of 200 red mice, one giant was noted. Approximately the same ratio was noted in the Rostov region during the capture of migratory animals.

According to rough estimates, the number of giant bats in Russia is 17-27 thousand individuals. This number, according to experts, is small. Therefore, nocturnal winged mammals are rare species and are on the verge of extinction.

What measures were taken to protect

To attract noctresses to the regions, it is necessary to stop the destruction of old-growth forests. After all, these mammals live mainly in old plants.

In addition, it is necessary to organize the creation of artificial shelters and conduct special studies to identify migration routes and habitats of nocturnia.

Interesting facts about the animal

Interesting information from the life of giant noctresses:

  • the endurance of these mammals is amazing - they are able to easily fly over high mountains and travel long distances,
  • in flight, giant bats can reach speeds of up to 40 km / h,
  • communicating with each other, mice use sound signals inaccessible to human hearing,
  • in some European countries, in particular - Spain, close observation of these mammals and attempts to photograph them are prohibited.

The giant nocturnal is a rare species of bats that is on the verge of extinction. To stop this process, a person needs to investigate the habitat of nocturnal grass and the ways of its migration.

Old trees are of particular importance in the life of these mammals. Cutting them down for large bats means moving out of their homes. Preservation of forests will help restore the number of giant bats.