Bird Families

Paradise Flycatcher and Reed Sutora

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Second edition. First publication: Levin A.S. 1998/1999. Meeting of a paradise flycatcher in the vicinity of Almaty // Selevinia: 240.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "Meeting of the paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi in the vicinity of Almaty"

Gladkov N.A., Zaletaev V.S. 1956. On the bird fauna of Mangyshlak and Mangistau Islands // Tr. Institute of Biol. AN TurkmSSR 4: 120-164. Gubin B.M. 2015. Birds of the deserts of Kazakhstan. Part 1. Birds of Mangyshlak, Ustyurt and

peninsula Buzachi. Almaty: 1-261. Dementyev G.P. 1952. Birds of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat: 1-547.

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Erokhov S.N., Berezovikov N.N. 2009. Materials for the avifauna of the lake steppe and forest-steppe of the Kustanai region. Part 2 // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 18 (517): 1751-1780. Isakov Yu.A., Vorobiev K.A. 1940. Review of wintering and migration of birds in the South Caspian //

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Bird migration in Asia. Novosibirsk: 163-166. Krivitsky I.A., Khrokov V.V., Volkov E.N., Zhuliy V.A. 1985. Birds Kurgaldzhin-

sky reserve. Alma-Ata: 1-195. Kydyraliev A.K. 1990. Birds of lakes and mountain rivers of Kyrgyzstan. Frunze: 1-240. Poslavsky A.N., Postnikov G.B., Samarin E.G. 1964. About wintering of birds in the Northern Caspian region and on Mangyshlak // Hunting birds of Kazakhstan (fauna, ecology and practical importance). Alma-Ata: 157-180. Potapov R.L. 1966. Birds of the Pamirs // Tr. Zool. Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences 39: 3-119. Sema A.M. 1989. Phenology of bird migration in Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: 1-152. Fundukchiev S.E. 1990. Family Gulls Laridae // Birds of Uzbekistan. Tashkent, 2: 127-159.

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avifauna of the Volga-Ural interfluve // ​​Fauna and biology of birds of Kazakhstan. Almaty: 7-103.

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Russian Ornithological Journal 2016, Volume 25, Express Issue 1247: 491-492

Meeting of the paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi in the vicinity of Almaty

Second edition. First published 1998-1999 *

The distribution boundaries of the paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi are limited to the southern regions of Kazakhstan. This bird has never been observed east of the Aksu-Dzhabagly reserve. AF Kovshar (1988) described a meeting of a single individual north of the border of its distribution in the southwestern part of Betpak-Dala.

* Levin A.S. 1998/1999. Meeting of a paradise flycatcher in the vicinity of Almaty // Selevinia: 240.

Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2016. Volume 25. Express Edition No. 1247 491

In the eastern part of the dacha massif, located in the area of ​​the Turar village, 30 km north-west of Almaty, on June 7, 1998, a male paradise flycatcher was observed, which kept on the slope of the northeastern exposure in the crowns of the tallest peach trees and cultivated sea buckthorn heavily affected by aphids. For several hours in the afternoon, the bird fed on flying insects, which were concentrated in this section of the garden in large numbers. Due to the constant movement, bright plumage, as well as loud clicks emitted by the beak when seizing insects, the paradise flycatcher was very noticeable. I flew to the people on the site at a distance of 8-10 m.

A.F. Kovshar (1988) 2008. Flycatcher of the paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi in the Betpak-Dala desert // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 17 (454): 1811.

Russian Ornithological Journal 2016, Volume 25, Express Issue 1247: 492-493

Bird feeding during the mass flight of Formicidae ants in the Southern Altai

Second edition. First published 1998-1999 *

In the foothills of the Southern Altai, within an altitude of 600-800 m above sea level, in the first half of May, a mass emergence of large ants of the Formicidae family is observed annually. In some years, the flight of ants is especially intense.

From 6 to 11 May 1989 in the southwestern spurs of the Narym ridge in the vicinity of the village of Sergeevka, Kurchum district of the East Kazakhstan region, among the hilly feather-grass-grass steppe with fragments of aspen groves and pine-birch woodlands, the flight of ants began at 7-8 am, when the soil warmed up to 20-25 ° С and the lifting force of the air flows increased. The flight ended in almost complete darkness. During this period of time, all the birds we observed stopped their usual search for food and completely switched to prey for ants. Purposeful hunting for them was noted in 19 species of birds. The nature of their hunting for insects is different. So, forty

* Starikov S.V. 1998-1999. Feeding of birds during the mass flight of ants in the Southern Altai // Selevinia: 241.

Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2016. Volume 25. Express Edition No. 1247

Long-tailed flycatcher

But, as we now know, this is not always the case. Rather, it is even the other way around: the more ordinary-looking the bird, the better it sings. Our nightingale is a good example of this. As for the paradise flycatchers, in most of their species the song is short and quiet. And the cries, especially when the birds are agitated at the nest, are harsh and unpleasant. But Gloger was mainly a museum worker, he worked more with carcasses of birds and the voices of paradise flycatchers, most likely, never heard. And then it was too late to change anything. "Then" in taxonomy - scientific activity associated with the description of new groups of organisms - simply does not exist. Even if an elementary grammatical mistake was made in describing a species or genus, it will forever go down in the annals of science. This is the law of scientific names, which came from Linnaeus. Nothing can be altered. Otherwise, there will be chaos and endless disputes about the championship.

As for the specific name, it is very appropriate. The paradise flycatcher is a beautiful bird. The male's head and throat are blackish-blue with a bright metallic sheen. The back, upper tail and luxurious tail with elongated central feathers are red. The chest, abdomen and sides are white. On the head is a large crest of elongated feathers. The female is also a beauty, which does not often happen in birds. Almost not inferior to the male in the brightness of the plumage, only the "face" is grayer and the tail is shorter. Perhaps this is the most beautiful passerine bird in Russia. Although someone may argue. As you know, there are no comrades for taste and color.

I wrote "the bird of Russia" and stopped short. Didn't he lie? After all, the paradise flycatcher is mainly known to us from Central Asia. It was here, in the shady gardens and broad-leaved forests of the foothills of Tajikistan, that ornithologists used to go after this species. And, of course, he was included in the lists of birds of the Soviet Union. But now Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan are abroad. For a zoologist, no matter what nationality he is, the fragmentation of a country is always upsetting, since the nature of political boundaries does not know, and when fragmented, a mass of unique landscapes and their inhabitants are beyond reach. And it’s much more difficult to keep them that way. After all, many of the new states are now not up to nature protection. Therefore, rare species disappear here much faster. This is not theory, but practice. And you can't argue with that.

So is there a paradise flycatcher in Russia? There is! Only very rare. The range of this species extends throughout South Asia, from Pakistan to Korea. In Central Asia, there is a subspecies called the Turkestan paradise flycatcher. The Chinese subspecies, with a slightly shorter crest and a darker, almost brown coloration of the back, enters the south of the Russian Far East. This subspecies is generally more rare, and especially on the outskirts of the range. Only a few nesting sites are known in the Primorsky Territory - near Lake Khanka and in the Ussuri valley. Therefore, the paradise flycatcher is included in the Red Book of Russia. By the way, in the Far East, the white morph of the paradise flycatcher is sometimes found. These are especially beautiful birds - completely white with a dark blue head and a crest.

To see the paradise flycatcher is a naturalist's dream. But it is not so easy to implement it. Firstly, it is far from Ussuri. And secondly, it is not without reason that this is a tropical bird. Do you know what urema is? Probably not. And in the Ussuriysk region, where there is a river, there is Urema. These are a kind of Far Eastern "mangroves", where, of course, dense thickets of willow in the first roles, alder, bird cherry and spirea in the second, and many other shrubs farther from the water. The trunks stuck with poles and the wildly overgrown bushes here and there are intertwined with vines. This is urema. Scientifically - tree and shrub thickets. One hundred percent humidity, stuffiness and myriads of biting midges. Nice picture? And from the outside it looks tempting, even beautiful - a kind of small Amazon. "From the side", that is, from the river on which you are sailing by boat, for example, on a narrow Udege omorochka or on an ordinary rubber one with short oars. In this way, it is best to approach the feathered inhabitants of the Ussuri Amazon. To break right through the thickets of willows and spireas is just to rip off your boots and swear. But if you want to see the paradise flycatcher, you have to break.

Dark-backed long-tailed flycatcher

It is always difficult to see a bird in an urem. Branches, trunks, foliage - everything interferes, obstructs the perspective. White-eyed buntings chatter, gray-headed buntings and long-tailed bullfinches scurry from side to side. Like the Amazonian macaw parrots, blue magpies fly from shore to shore. They flop from flying on branches hanging over the water and swing on them in unison with the wiggle of their tail. From a distance, from the heap of trees, the foal neighing of a whistling nightingale is heard. From the creases of the bird cherry, a blue nightingale echoes it with metal trills. Tropics, and more! But then there was an irritated th, th and then, with a characteristic nasal pronouncing, a hoarse kwya-ve... So lucky. Stumbled upon a couple of paradise flycatchers. A long dark tail flashed in the gloom of the urema, and the handsome male crouched for a couple of seconds on one of the branches two meters away from you. Birds are very curious creatures, in fact, thanks to this, some secretive species can be seen in nature. The male croaked irritably a couple more times, swinging on a branch with a half-open beak, and disappeared into a heap of branches and trunks. But then the female appeared. For a few more seconds, you can admire the tropical "exotic". Soon she disappears too. However. couple. So, somewhere there is a nest.

Endlessly clinging to the bush with the boots of our boots, hitting a couple of times in the living loops-traps of the lianas, with branches, bark and other plant debris falling behind the collar, we finally find a neat basket twisted into a hut in a fork of two branches just one and a half meters from the ground. Such a nest cannot be confused with anyone else. There are still fledglings in the nest. They open their mouths and ask for food. Again, for a moment, the parents appear, shout excitedly and disappear into the wall of thickets. Perhaps you will have to wait ten or fifteen minutes until they show up again.

Most of the rare birds are large. Eagles, cranes, storks, for example. More precisely, this is the case in Europe, North Asia and North America. Many small forest birds are migratory here and have wide ranges. They easily adapt to changing human conditions - they nest in the agricultural landscape, penetrate cities and towns. It happens that a city park or even a yard with a dustbin is enough for them to survive. It is, of course, more difficult for large birds to adapt. But in the tropics there are many rare small forest birds. Many of them are sedentary and spend their entire lives in a limited area, for example, on a certain island in an archipelago. If the forests on this island are cut down, then this species is threatened with extinction.

Rare species of passerine birds include reed sutora (Paradoxornis heudei), common in China in the Yangtze River valley, in the extreme east of Mongolia and in our country on Lake Khanka. In general, Primorye, Sakhalin and the Kuriles are a treasure trove of Russian feathered rarities.

Reed sutora

In terms of its appearance and biology, the reed sutora is no less remarkable than the paradise flycatcher. This bird belongs to a special East Asian family of thick-billed tits. Its body shape is somewhat reminiscent of our European long-tailed tit, or crested bird, with a compact body and head and a long, stepped tail. But only larger, more massive and - like all "thick beaks" - with a powerful and extremely flattened beak, somewhat reminiscent of a parrot's beak. The color is iridescent-multi-colored, like many Chinese birds, and a long black plait stretches from eye to shoulder. In general, the bird is extremely original, which is reflected in its Latin name - Paradoxornis - and means "strange bird".

As its Russian everyday name correctly says, the life of this bird is closely related to the reed. More precisely - with reed beds around water bodies. Here she finds food, here she breeds offspring. With its wonderful beak, it cuts the reed stalk like scissors and with the help of its tongue pulls out large larvae from its cavity. With the beak of the sutra, they split the reed in order to twist from its fibers, between its stems, a nest in which five or six white eggs with a corolla of brown spots are laid. After twelve days, chicks hatch from the eggs. Some nests are destroyed by strong winds, and then the birds start all over again. Therefore, the general timing of the emergence of chicks is extended.

The area of ​​the reed suture

The banks of the Khanka are an ocean of reed and reed grass, often impassable reed marshes. You cannot go on foot, nor can you go by boat. It is very difficult to find a suture here, therefore, probably, this rare species was discovered by Far Eastern ornithologists only in the 1960s. XX century. But these birds live in small settlements and, moreover, are very talkative. And the reeds are constantly being cut. A characteristic noise is heard from afar, which, with the skill, helps to find their settlement.

The fact that the reed sutora is endangered is not only due to its limited range. The reeds on the Hank are drying up. In some places they are mowed down, but the main danger is fires. Dried reeds burn like cotton wool, and that's a big problem. Sutors are very attached to their nesting territory and usually do not move more than 100 km from it, even in winter. However, because of the fires, they are forced to change their nesting places, which complicates their protection. Several years ago, a nature reserve was created on Khanka, but its territory is small, and fires know no boundaries. So the survival of the reed sutra, like the paradise flycatcher and many other rare birds of Russia, remains in question. Everything depends on the effective protection of their habitats. And it becomes more and more difficult to solve this problem every year.

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