Bird Families

Family Bustard (Otididae)

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Birds vary in size (from 5 cm to 2.75 m) and weight (from 1.6 grams to 156 kg). They are also called flying dinosaurs, because recent research has identified their connection to ancient reptiles. We offer you a closer look at who they are, the largest birds in the world.

15. Curly Pelican

  • Weight: up to 15 kg

The Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is one of the heaviest flying bird species in the world. Its length ranges from 160 to 183 cm, and its wingspan reaches 290-345 cm. This beauties weigh from 7.25 to 15 kg. He lives in a vast area from Southeast Europe to India and China.

14. Andean condor

  • Weight: up to 15 kg

The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) weighs 11 to 15 kg in males and 8 to 11 kg in females. The total length varies from 100 to 130 cm. The bird also has a very large wingspan - up to 3.3 m. Only four seabirds and waterfowl (wandering albatross, royal albatross, pink pelican and Dalmatian pelican) have a higher indicator.

The Andean condor plays an important role in the folklore and mythology of the South American Andean regions. It is the national symbol of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and the peoples living at the foot of the Andes.

13. Trumpet swan

  • Weight: up to 17.2 kg

The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) is one of the heaviest flying birds on the planet. She lives in North America. The wingspan of these birds of this species can exceed 3 meters. The largest known trumpeter was 183 cm long and weighed 17.2 kg.

At some point in history, trumpeter swans were almost destroyed: in the 19th and early 20th centuries, they were actively hunted. By 1933, fewer than 70 wild trumpeters were known in or near the remote hot springs in or near Yellowstone National Park, and extinction seemed imminent. But an aerial survey of the Copper River in Alaska in the 1950s found several thousand trumpeters. This population breathed new life into the development of the species, and gradually the number of trumpeters increased to more than 46,000 birds by 2010.

12. Great bustard and African great bustard

Bustard African Great Bustard
  • Weight: up to 18 kg.

The bustard (Otis tarda) and the African great bustard are probably the heaviest living flying birds. Great bustard can be seen in central, southern Europe and Asia. However, 60% of the population is currently in Portugal and Spain. Male bustards usually reach 90-105 cm in height, about 115 cm in length and have a wingspan of 2.1-2.7 m. The weight of an adult male can range from 5.8 to 18 kg. Females are much smaller. They weigh between 3.1 and 8 kg.

The African Great Bustard (Ardeotis kori) is native to Africa. The length of the male African bustard is 120-150 cm, the height is 71-120 cm, and the wingspan can reach about 230-275 cm. Males usually weigh from 7 to 18 kg. Females weigh an average of 3 to 7 kg.

11. King penguin

  • Weight: up to 18 kg

The average weight of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is similar or slightly higher than that of the largest living flying birds - the bustard and the great African bustard. It can reach 18 kg. The height of the birds ranges from 70 to 100 cm. Males are slightly larger than females. It is the second largest penguin species (the largest is the emperor penguin, which you will read about on the next page).

10. Cassowary Muruk

  • Weight: up to 26 kg

The cassowary muruk (Casuarius bennetti) is 99 to 150 cm long and weighs 17.6 to 26 kg. It lives in the mountain forests of New Guinea, New Britain and Yapen Island (New Guinea) at altitudes up to 3300 m. In addition, cassowaries are the most dangerous birds on the planet. With their long, sharp claws, they are capable of killing a person with one blow.

9. Darwin's rhea

  • Weight: up to 28.6 kg

Darwin's nandu (Rhea pennata), also known as rhea, reaches a height of 90-100 cm.The length of the bird is from 92 to 100 cm, and the weight is from 15 to 28.6 kg. Nandu is found in the Altiplano (a vast plateau in the Andes) and Patagonia in South America.

8. Turkey

  • Weight: up to 39 kg

The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was probably domesticated in central Mesoamerica at least 2,000 years ago. The English name "turkey" (another translation from the English word "turkey" - Turkey) is the result of an early mistaken identification of the bird with an unrelated species that was introduced to Europe through Turkey.

The birds can grow up to 39 kg.

7. Common rhea

  • Weight: up to 40 kg

Weighing 20-40 kilograms, the common rhea (Rhea americana) are the largest birds on the American continent. Strong powerful legs allow them to reach speeds of up to 56 km / h.

This species lives in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

6. Emperor Penguin

  • Weight: up to 45 kg

The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is endemic to Antarctica. It is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. They reach 130 cm in height and weigh between 22 and 45 kg. Male and female emperor penguins are similar in plumage and size.

5. Emu

  • Weight: up to 60 kg

The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second tallest living bird (the largest of them is a close relative of the emu, the ostrich). Emus can reach 1.9 meters.

Birds of this species weigh from 18 to 60 kg. Females are slightly larger than males. They can run at 48 km / h.

Today emus are endemic to Australia. The King Island emu and emu subspecies became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788.

4. Orange-necked cassowary

  • Weight: up to 70 kg

The orange-necked cassowary (Casuarius unappendiculatus) is a large, bulky bird native to northern New Guinea. Females can weigh up to 70 kg. Males are smaller. Despite their squat build, cassowaries can run at speeds of up to 50 kilometers per hour.

3. Helmet-bearing cassowary

  • Weight: up to 83 kg

The helmet-bearing cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) is common in the tropical rain forests of Indonesia, New Guinea, and northeastern Australia. He prefers altitudes below 1100 m in Australia and 500 m in New Guinea. In general, the height of the bird ranges from 127 to 170 cm, and the weight - from 36 to 50 kg for males and 68 kg for females. The maximum recorded height of these birds is 190 cm.

The helmeted cassowary is the largest extant Asian bird (since the extinction of the Arabian ostrich and formerly the moa in New Zealand) and the largest extant Australian bird (although the emu may be slightly taller).

2. Somali ostrich

  • Weight: up to 130 kg

The second largest surviving bird is the Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes). It is a large flightless bird native to the Horn of Africa. She also lives in northeastern Ethiopia and throughout Somalia. Previously, the bird was considered a subspecies of the common ostrich, but in 2014 it was identified as a separate species.

A male Somali ostrich can weigh up to 130 kg.

1. Ostrich

  • Weight: up to 156.8 kg

The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the largest living bird on Earth. His homeland is Africa. Ostriches usually weigh between 63 and 145 kilograms, or two whole adults. Exceptional male ostriches can weigh up to 156.8 kg. They reach a height of 2.1 to 2.8 m, while the height of females varies from 1.7 to 2.0 m.

Ostriches have large, powerful legs. They can accelerate to 70 km / h and cover 3 to 5 meters in one step.

The world is full of mysteries and unexpected discoveries. The largest birds in the world are living proof of this. Who would have thought that they are in fact the distant descendants of the majestic dinosaurs! Nature never ceases to amaze us, and, of course, this is not her last mystery.

Indian Great Bustard Information About

African Great Bustard

Birds come in a wide variety of sizes and weights. The largest living bird is the African ostrich. But he, as you know, does not fly. Where does the heaviest flying bird live? Yes, everything is in the same place in Africa and bears the name - the great African bustard (Ardeotis kori) from the Crane-like order. The African great bustard is much larger than the common bustard, which lives in the vastness of the CIS and, by the way, is the heaviest flying bird in Eurasia.

The male African Great Bustard weighs about 20 kg with a total length of up to 120 cm. Females are smaller. African big bustards make an impressive impression: a long neck, a slightly flattened head is crowned with a black crest. On the head, neck and belly of the bird, grayish-whitish tones prevail, and on the back, wings and tail there is a dense, hard plumage of brown color.

African great bustards, being endemic, inhabit mainly the African savannas, overgrown with low vegetation. Occasionally found in agricultural landscapes. Bustards walk more than fly, therefore they have strong, thick legs, adapted for rapid movement on the earth's surface.

Bustard lifestyle

They have an excellent ability to camouflage in the grass. Unlike their Eurasian migratory relatives, African bustards are sedentary. The flight of a large African bustard is something. It is good that such "birds" do not fly here.

The bustard has a mixed diet: plant and animal food. The diet of an adult bustard consists of green shoots, various seeds and grains, and insects. The need for water, again, unlike the bustard that lives in temperate latitudes, the African great bustard is minimal. The coccygeal gland is absent. The life span of a bustard in natural conditions rarely exceeds 20 years. However, there are cases when individual birds crossed the forty-year line.

Reproduction in bustards

Pairs form only for a short breeding period. Large African bustards are on the ground. The movements of males during mating games are distinguished by their originality. The bustard's nest is made in the ground, slightly lining it with grass. In clutch there are 2-3 eggs of variegated color. Incubation lasts 20-30 days. This responsibility falls entirely on the female. Having barely hatched from the eggs and slightly dried out, the chicks are already ready to follow their mother. Currently, the heaviest flying birds are under threat of extinction and hunting, which was so widespread in the past, is now completely prohibited.

"DROF́A", publ. house, Moscow. Main in 1991 as LLC. Textbooks, uch.-methodical. and a reference letter for general education. uch. institutions.

The Big Russian Encyclopedic Dictionary. 2012

See also the interpretations, synonyms, meanings of the word and what is DROFA in Russian in dictionaries, encyclopedias and reference books:

  • DROFA in the Brockhaus and Euphron Encyclopedic Dictionary: see ...
  • DROFA in the Modern Encyclopedic Dictionary:
  • Bustard in the Encyclopedic Dictionary: large steppe bird (bustard family). Length up to 1 m, the heaviest (weight up to 22 kg) among flying birds. In males ...
  • DROFA in the Encyclopedic Dictionary:, -y, pl. bustards, bustards, bustards, f. A related to the crane is a large steppe bird with a long neck and strong legs. Bustard family. ...
  • DROFA in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia:? cm. …
  • Bustard in the Full Accentuated Paradigm according to Zaliznyak: bustard ", dro" phy, bustard ", dro" f, bustard ", dro" fam, bustard ", dro" f, bustard "y, bustard" yu, dro "family, bustard" , ...
  • DROFA in the Dictionary for solving and compiling scanwords: Who is ...
  • DROFA in the dictionary of Synonyms of the Russian language: wiggle, ...
  • DROFA in the New explanatory and derivational dictionary of the Russian language by Efremova: A large bird of the family ...
  • DROFA in the Dictionary of the Russian language Lopatin: bustard, -y, pl. dr'ofy, ...
  • DROFA in the Complete spelling dictionary of the Russian language: bustard, -y, pl. bustards, ...
  • DROFA in the Spelling Dictionary: bustard, -y, pl. dr'ofy, ...
  • DROFA in the Russian Dictionary of Ozhegov: a related to the crane, a large steppe bird with a long neck and strong legs. Family ...
  • DROFA in the Dahl Dictionary: drafa, drahva, dudak, bird Otis ...
  • DROFA in the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language by Ushakov: and DROKHVA, bustards, pl. bustards, f. A large, steppe bird from the detachment ...
  • Bustard in the Explanatory Dictionary of Efremova: bustard f. A large bird of the family ...
  • DROFA in the New Dictionary of the Russian Language by Efremova: A large bird of the family ...
  • DROFA in the Big Modern Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language: A large bird of the crane family with a long neck and strong legs, inhabiting ...
  • THE HEAVIEST OF FLYING BIRDS, "BOTTOM" in the Guinness Book of Records 1998: The heaviest flying birds are the African Great Bustard (Ardeotiskori), which lives in North-East and South Africa, and the Dudak (Otistarda), which lives in ...
  • DROFA BASE in the Directory of Settlements and Postal Codes of Russia: 682928, Khabarovsk, District ...
  • SAUDI ARABIA in the Directory of the Countries of the World: State in the southwest of Asia, occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula. In the north, it borders on Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, in the east - ...
  • BARRELS in the Encyclopedia Biology:, family of birds neg. cranes. Includes 22 species of birds of medium and large size (weight from 1 to 20 kg), inhabiting ...
  • STEPPE FAUNA fauna, a complex of animals characteristic of the steppes. Fauna of the Eurasian steppes, both in terms of species composition and some general ecological features ...
  • USSR. ANIMAL WORLD in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, TSB: the world Due to the wide variety of conditions, both on land and in the seas and with a significant stretch of territory from ...
  • BOTTLES in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, TSB: (Otididae), a family of birds of the order crane-like. The sizes are large or medium, the neck is long, the legs are strong, rather long, the fingers are short with hard calloused ...

Or bustard Corey

- a large flying bird that lives, as the name implies, on the African continent. Occurs in open areas with sandy soils, overgrown with low grass and shrubs, as well as in low-wooded savannas and semi-deserts. These characteristics correspond to the territories of Botswana, Namibia, Partially Angola, Zambabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and South Africa. Leads mainly a sedentary lifestyle, making minor movements after rains.

African bustard

is the heaviest flying bird on the continent. Males reach a weight of up to 19 kg, and grow in length up to 130 cm. Females are very different in size - they are about 2/3 lighter than males, and weigh an average of 5.5 kg. The bird has a relatively long neck and very long legs, the general tone of the feather cover is gray-brown.

Feathers on the neck are long, gray in color with a huge number of black and white flecks. The back and part of the wings are brownish-brown, the chest and belly are white, on the folds of the wings there are several dozen randomly scattered black spots. On the back of the head there is a long crest of black feathers, legs and beak are yellowish.

Most of the time, the large African bustard spends on the ground. Being a large and heavy bird, it takes off only when absolutely necessary.

Bustards live both singly and in small groups of 5-7 birds. They are active in the mornings and evenings, when they walk sedately on the ground in search of food. They are quite omnivorous, but mainly eat insects such as locusts, grasshoppers and caterpillars. Lizards, chameleons, snakes, small mammals and even chicks, eggs and carrion are also often included in their menu. Bustard Corey

regularly visit watering places, if they are located nearby, however, the bird can be found far from water sources. Unusually, they do not scoop up water like other birds, but suck it.

The mating season for the great African bustard is most active in November and December. Like other bustards, this species "professes" a polygamous breeding model - one male mates with many females. Fierce clashes often occur between males, when they, swelling the goiter, fluffing feathers on the neck, dropping their wings and protruding their tail, rush at each other, showering their opponent with a hail of blows with their beak.

After mating, the female bustard Corey lays 2 (rarely more or less) eggs on bare ground. Then, within 23-30 days, the female incubates the clutch, practically not leaving the nest. When the chicks hatch, she provides soft food for them to eat. Chicks fledge at 4-5 weeks, but they will be able to fly confidently only at the age of 3-4 months.

Mostly a terrestrial bird, the African measles bustard is prey for many predators.Among them, leopard, cheetah, mountain pythons, jackals and war eagles (the last two predators are especially dangerous for eggs and chicks) attack bustards of all ages. Also African warthogs, mongooses and baboons can eat eggs and chicks. On average, out of two chicks, only one survives to adulthood. In case of danger, the female tries to protect the offspring by fluffing her wings and tail in order to appear larger, but she does not always manage to preserve the brood.

Appearance

This bird is distinguished by a rather knocked down physique. Thus, the bustard is a rather massive animal. Outwardly, it resembles a turkey. The bustard has a very wide chest and a thick neck. The difference in weight between the sexes is quite significant. Male bustards weighing 7-16 kg, and females are about 2 times smaller. The body length of the former is about 105 cm, while the latter rarely exceed 80 cm in size.

These birds have long, wide and strong wings. Their span can vary from 190 to 260 cm. The tail of birds is also long. The feathers are slightly rounded at the end. The legs of the bustard are not covered with plumage. They are quite long and thick. Thanks to strong limbs, the bird can run quickly. There are only 3 toes on the legs of the bird, which are crowned with strong claws.

Bustards are distinguished by their bright, elegant plumage, which includes different shades of gray, white, red and even black. Usually the head and neck of this feathered giant has an ash gray color. The upper part of the wings and back is distinguished by a reddish-buffy color with a characteristic streaky pattern. Usually the belly, chest, undertail and inner part of the wing are painted white. In springtime, males acquire breeding plumage. In the neck area, they develop a bright orange collar of feathers, and also grow characteristic stiff feather tufts that form a long mustache. The female does not change the color of the plumage during the mating season.

There are 2 known bustard subspecies inhabiting different territories. They have slight differences in plumage color. In the bustard of the dudak, it is lighter.

This bird has a rather short grayish beak. The eyes are small, with a dark iris. The steppe bustard is more adapted for movement on the ground. A frightened bird often scatters for 30 m to climb on the wing. Such a difficult take-off is largely due to its heavy weight.

In fact, these birds are extremely shy and try to hide in the tall grass when danger approaches, where they freeze. They soar into the air only if the pursuit on the ground does not stop. During the flight, they do not rise too high. To keep massive bodies in the air, birds make wide, measured swings. The flight is not very fast.

Lifestyle and nutrition

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Bustards can live both alone and in small groups of 5-7 individuals. They are most active in the morning and evening hours. The bird spends most of the time on the ground in search of food. Males are polygamous and defend their territory from other males. The breeding period depends on the rainy season and, as a result, on the region of habitat. The African bustard is omnivorous, feeding on insects, small animals including snakes and mammals, carrion, seeds, berries, roots and other plant foods.

Notes (edit)

  1. Boehme R.L., Flint V.E.
    A five-language dictionary of animal names. Birds. Latin, Russian, English, German, French / Under total. ed. acad. V.E.Sokolova. - M .: Rus. yaz., "RUSSO", 1994. - 845 p. - 2030 copies - ISBN 5-200-00643-0.
  2. Kori Bustard Research. National Zoo, FONZ: Washington D.C .. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  3. Ginn P.J., McIlleron W.G. & Milstein P. le S. 1989. The Complete Book of southern African birds
    ... Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

  • Weight: up to 60 kg

The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second tallest living bird (the largest of them is a close relative of the emu, the ostrich). Emus can reach 1.9 meters.

Birds of this species weigh from 18 to 60 kg. Females are slightly larger than males. They can run at 48 km / h.

Today emus are endemic to Australia. The King Island emu and emu subspecies became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788.

Bustard diet

The bird has a rich gastronomic assortment, which includes animal and plant components, the ratio of which is influenced by the age and sex of the bustard, the locality of its residence and the availability of specific food.

Adults willingly eat leaves, shoots, inflorescences and seeds of cultivated / wild plants such as:

  • dandelion, field thistle, goat breeder, sow thistle, common tansy, kulbaba,
  • meadow and creeping clover, sainfoin, peas and alfalfa (sowing),
  • sowing and field radish, rapeseed, garden cabbage, turnips, black mustard,
  • goat and fescue,
  • various plantains.

Occasionally switches to the roots of grasses - umbelliferae, wheatgrass creeping and onions. With a shortage of habitual vegetation, the bustard switches to harder food, for example, beet shoots. But the coarse fibers of beets are often the cause of the death of birds due to indigestion.

The composition of animal feed looks something like this:

  • adults / larvae of locusts, grasshoppers, crickets and bears,
  • beetles / larvae of ground beetles, dead eaters, Colorado beetles, dark beetles, leaf beetles and weevils,
  • caterpillars of butterflies and bugs (rare),
  • snails, earthworms and earwigs,
  • lizards, frogs, chicks of the lark and other birds nesting on the ground,
  • small rodents,
  • ants / pupae from the genus Formica (for food for chicks).

Great bustards cannot do without water: in the summer they fly to the watering hole, in the winter they are content with snow.

Food

The large Indian bustard feeds on various small animals - grasshoppers, snails, small snakes, centipedes, lizards, beetles, pecks spiders from the web. In addition, the bustard also hunts mice, thereby making a service for local farmers. It also feeds on plants: some types of herbs, leaves, seeds and grains. He raids melons, eats seeds from watermelons and melons. The bustard usually feeds early in the morning and late in the evening, and rests during the day.

Reproduction

The Indian Great Bustard is a polygamous bird. The male has several females, but he does not show care for eggs and offspring. For mating ceremonies, the male chooses small hills or sand dunes; when outsiders approach, he immediately hides in the thickets of tall grass. mating season, the male dances, walks importantly, spreading his tail with a fan, screams loudly. His cry resembles a cross between the snort of a camel and the roar of a lion. Usually, these cries can be heard in the morning hours even before dawn and in the evening twilight and are carried over long distances. After mating, the female lays one egg, as a rule, in places remote from humans. To do this, she digs a hole in the ground and lays an egg. Sometimes two eggs can be found in a bustard's nest. However, according to ornithologists, this does not mean that one female laid two eggs, most likely, it is two females from one male that laid their eggs in one place. Usually Indian bustards lay their eggs from June to October, sometimes this happens at other times of the year. The egg of the Indian bustard is elongated, covered with chocolate spots and reddish-brown markings. After 20-28 days, a chick hatches from the egg, which can walk immediately. In cases of danger, the female sits on the nest to the last, then suddenly jumps out to meet the enemy, loudly flapping her wings. If there is a chick in the nest, then it begins to hiss or silently changes its location and sits on the ground. Sometimes the female pretends to be wounded, pretending that her legs are hit and takes the enemy away from the nest, flies low above the ground, the chick at this time sits, huddled to the ground, and does not move until the mother calls him. After a while, he begins to make soft whistling sounds, calling for his mother.

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