Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin, 1788) Order Falconiformes - Falconiformes
Family Hawk - Accipitridae
Category and status... Category 3. Rare breeding and migratory species.
Short description. Outwardly, it looks like real eagles, but it is smaller (the wingspan is slightly more than a meter). The tail, unlike other eagles, is long and narrow, and the bottom is always light, without transverse stripes. Paws, like all eagles, are feathered to the toes. Coloring is of two morphs - light and dark. In birds of a light morph, the upper body is brown, the underside is light buffy, with narrow dark streaks. In dark birds, the color is brownish-brown, on the head there is often a golden or reddish tint, like in real eagles. Flight feathers are always dark, without transverse stripes. The voice is shrill South-South-South.
Habitats and biology... Inhabits plain and mountainous, mainly floodplain forests. Arranges nests in trees. It feeds mainly on small mammals and birds. Clutch contains from 1 to 3 eggs. Migratory species, ecology is poorly studied. The flight is fast and maneuverable, rarely soars, sometimes it can arrange peculiar dances in the air.
Spread... Northwest Africa, Eurasia - from the Iberian Peninsula to the east to Khingan. In Russia, it lives in the south of the European part to the Volga and along the border - from Altai to Transbaikalia. A rare nesting species on the territory of the Irkutsk region. In 2005, two nests were found in the Balagansko-Nukutskaya forest-steppe in the vicinity of the villages of Pervomaisky and Hareta and one in the vicinity of the village. Elantsy. There is an indication of a specimen of a male in the collection of the ISU, obtained on May 10, 1927 near the village. Alar. Hartert, 1922 (cited by) indicates the nesting of the dwarf eagle along the Lena. In 2008, on the Lena River between Ust-Kut and Kirensk, 6 of these birds were encountered in July. Also met on May 18, 1997 in the vicinity of the village. Ust-Orda near the former village. Kulunkun. Solitary individuals were recorded on June 15, 1984 in the lower reaches of the river. Unga, on July 1, 1998 on the right bank of the Unginsky Bay and on June 13, 1999 on the shore of the Osinsky Bay. June 16, 2005 met on the river. Tutura at the village. Mint. Within the boundaries of Irkutsk, it was noted on the spring and autumn migration. At the Novo-Lenin swamps in the Irkut floodplain, it was encountered on May 25, 1988, May 21, 1989, June 4 and 20, 1990, and August 21, 1993. In the floodplain of the river. Oia near the village. Gadalei of Tulunsky region was taken on June 15, 1965, and a day later another one was encountered flying over a forest lake. During the breeding time, it was found in the Goloustnaya delta [10,13]. On the Ziminsko-Kuytun forest-steppe area, a very rare migratory species was found on May 18, 1996 near Sayansk and on June 15, 1990 near the village. Bargadai. May 7, 1995 on the Biryusa river near the abandoned village. The corpse of a dwarf eagle was found in Ust-Yaga, Nizhneudinsky district. In the vicinity of the village. Vvedenschina in the Irkut floodplain was found in June 1990-91. ... In the vicinity of Angarsk in the Sushinsky Kaltus reserve, a dwarf eagle was encountered on May 4, 1996. Found in the Baikal-Lensky Nature Reserve in the Lena Valley at the mouth of the river. Yukhta-2 in mid-July 1998. On autumn migration, met on September 17, 1981 on the river. Irkut near the village. Smolensk region and August 16, 1999 near the village. Harbatovo, Kachugsky district. In 2006, in autumn, met near the town of Buley in the vicinity of the village. Ust-Ordynsky and two birds - in the vicinity of the village. Bayandai. Recorded during migration on the southern coast of Lake Baikal along the slopes of the Primorsky Ridge [11, 12].
The number. It is unknown on the territory of the region, but even at best it does not exceed several dozen pairs. So in 1998 and 1999, respectively, on 5235 and 6050 km of the automobile route, one bird was encountered.
Limiting factors... Not clarified.Destruction of habitats, direct shooting and disturbance factor, as well as an unfavorable situation at wintering grounds can have a negative impact.
Taken and necessary security measures... The species is included in the Red Data Books of Irkutsk Oblast and Buryatia, CITES-N and RI. It is included in Appendix 3 to the Red Data Book of Russia (“List of vulnerable bird species in Russia”). Within the Russian Federation, shooting and trapping of the species is prohibited, the fine is 10 times the minimum wage. On the territory of the region, it is necessary to clarify the current state, in case of finding nests, create dormant zones for the nesting period and explain to the local population the need to protect birds of prey.
Sources of information: 1 - Bezborodov, 1969, 2 - Karjakin et al., 2006, 3 - Lipin et al., 1983, 4 - Maleev, Popov, 2007, 5 - Melnikov, 1999a, b - Melnikov, 1999c, 7 - Popov, 2003 , 8 - Popov, Salovarov, 1998, 9 - Popov, Salovarov, 1999, 10 - Pyzhyanov et al., 2010, 11 - Ryabtsev, 20006, 12 - Ryabtsev et al., 1993, 13 - Ryabtsev, Turuta, 2002, 14 - Ryabtsev, Fefelov, 1997, 15 - Semenov, Kolodeznykh, 2009, 16 - Rock, 1935, 17 - Fefelov, 2006.
About the size of a buzzard or slightly larger. There are two color morphs; in Siberia, the dark one is more common. Birds of a light morph look dirty white from below, with dark flight feathers, on the inner primary flight feathers, especially at their ends, slight lightening, the head, neck and crop are reddish-gray, on top of the wing coverts there is a large light buffy spot, symmetrical light spots in the area shoulder blades, on the sides of the neck at the base of the wings there are small symmetrical white spots, especially clearly visible from the front. Birds of a dark morph are generally reddish-brown, underneath can be completely dark brown, with a slight lightening on the inner primary flight feathers. Above, birds of a dark morph also have highlights on the wing coverts and shoulder blades - a good diagnostic sign of the species - both morphs in all plumages. On the upper tail there is a light brownish or yellowish-white transverse stripe. When soaring, the wings are slightly fed forward, and the wrist part, on the contrary, backward, so that the wing is, as it were, underexpanded, like that of a kite. The main difference from the buzzard is the absence of a bright field on the bases of the flight feathers, they are mostly dark. The proportions of the wing are "aquiline", with a long shoulder and a well-defined "finger". The tail is lighter than the rest of the bottom, with darkening towards the top and an almost white stripe at the end, the tail trim is straight. The tarsus is feathered up to the toes. Fingers and waxes are yellow. The eyes are brown or yellow-brown in adults, and brown in the young. Male and female do not differ externally. Juveniles are similar to adults, but light morphs are more rufous underneath. Weight about 500-1300 g, length 45-53, male wing 34.2-37.8, females 37.4-42.5, span 100-132 cm. //
In Siberia, it nests in the mountains of the south of the region and in the forest-steppe from Western Siberia to Dauria, in places, possibly in the forest zone, for example, in the Lena valley, through which it penetrates almost to the middle course. In the XXI century, the expansion of the area in the Baikal region to the north was noted.
Rare breeding migrant. Inhabits floodplain forests, mountainous and lowland deciduous and coniferous forests with nearby open spaces. Appears in spring from mid-March, but mostly in April. Breeds in separate pairs at least 2 km apart. The nest is built mainly on trees (walnut, ash, spruce) at a height of 5-10 m above the ground, and very rarely on rocks, the nest is built from dry twigs, the tray is lined with dry stems of grass and often fresh twigs with leaves. The nest has been in use for several years. Clutches of 1-2 eggs in mid-April - May. Only female incubates, male feeds her. Both parents feed juveniles, which fledge in July - August. Autumn migration begins at the end of August, the last birds flying away were observed at the end of October. //
Description. Larger race. Male wing length 380-395 (388), female - 405-435 (420) mm.
Sources of information
Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. E. I. Gavrilov. "Fauna and distribution of birds in Kazakhstan". Almaty, 1999. V.K. Ryabitsev. "Birds of the Urals, Urals and Western Siberia". Ekaterinburg.Publishing house of the Ural University, 2000.